Lead compounds: lead dioxide

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The lead in lead dioxide formally is in the oxidation state 4.

Crystal structure of lead dioxide

Lead dioxide

  • Formula as often written: PbO2
  • Hill system formula: O2Pb1
  • CAS registry number: [1309-60-0]
  • Formula weight: 239.199
  • Class: oxide

Synonyms

  • lead dioxide
  • lead(IV) oxide
  • lead oxide

Physical properties

  • Colour: brown or red
  • Appearance: crystalline powder
  • Melting point: 290°C (decomposes to Pb3O4)
  • Boiling point:
  • Density: 9640 kg m-3

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Element analysis

Element percentages for the elements in lead dioxide
Element %
O 13.38
Pb 86.62

Synthesis

Pb(O2CMe)2 + Ca(OCl)2 + 4NaOH → 2PbO2 + CaCl2 + 4NaO2CMe + 2H2O

Lead(IV) oxide (PbO2, plumbic oxide) may be made by the oxidation in an alkaline solution of lead(II) ethanoate (plumbous acetate) with an oxidizer such as calcium hypochlorite. The product precipitates out in nearly quantitative yield. Lead(IV) oxide is a brown powder whose density is about 9000 kg m-3. On heating to 310°C it loses oxygen to form PbO. It is virtually insoluble in water.

Solid state structure

  • Geometry of lead:
  • Prototypical structure:

Crystal structure of lead dioxide

Isotope pattern

What follows is the calculated isotope pattern for the PbO2 unit with the most intense ion set to 100%.

Formula: Pb1O2

mass  %
236   2.7 _
237 0.0
238 45.9 _______________________
239 42.1 _____________________
240 100.0 __________________________________________________
241 0.2
242 0.4

References

The data on these compounds pages are assembled and adapted from the primary literature and several other sources including the following.

  • R.T. Sanderson in Chemical Periodicity, Reinhold, New York, USA, 1960.
  • N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw in Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth, UK, 1997.
  • F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann, in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  • A.F. Trotman-Dickenson, (ed.) in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1973.
  • R.W.G. Wyckoff, in Crystal Structures, volume 1, Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, 1963.
  • A.R.West in Basic solid state chemistry Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  • A.F. Wells in Structural inorganic chemistry, 4th edition, Oxford, UK, 1975.
  • J.D.H. Donnay, (ed.) in Crystal data determinative tables, ACA monograph number 5, American Crystallographic Association, USA, 1963.
  • D.R. Lide, (ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 77th edition, 1996.
  • J.W. Mellor in A comprehensive treatise on inorganic and theoretical chemistry, volumes 1-16, Longmans, London, UK, 1922-1937.
  • J.E. Macintyre (ed.) in Dictionary of inorganic compounds, volumes 1-3, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1992.

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